Monday, 7 December 2015

Top Engineering College in Andhra Pradesh

Benefits of Studying in Top Engineering College in Andhra Pradesh

The euphoria of engineering education had taken a hit in the recent years, due to the increased rate of unemployed engineers. Now, it became a necessity to improve the skills, and compete with the rest of the graduates, to make it into the 70% of the employed engineers. 

But, technical skills are hard to get by, as they are evolving to greater heights in the regular transitions. Though, the need of the hour is fine coaching by the engineering colleges, many of them haven’t even cared about the basic facilities to be provided, for pursuing the prestigious technical education. So, what’s the respite in such scenario? Well, get the engineering course at the best college in Andhra Pradesh, where you are provided with the complete technicalities of the course, and incredible practical sessions are offered to assist you in mastering the subject. 

Due to the sound skillset, it will be easy for you to earn a placement or walk-in, and trump any uneasiness of unemployment from your career. Studying in top engineering college in Andhra Pradesh, the RGMCET, can define the very core strengths of yours, which are essential for a formidable success. A sneak peek into the offerings of this engineering college, clears the thoughts about the facilities available on tap.

World class technical education

Engineering courses depend on the quality of technical education provided by the colleges, because even though they are effectively potential, any lags in the provision of education can yield no good results. RGMCET is well aware of this phenomena, and offers world class technical education for the students.

The theoretical aspects of engineering subjects should be taught by the expert teaching staff, who can elude knowledge in every part of the explanations. This results in the enlightenment of the students, who rehearse perfection in the academic preparations. 

Also, the practicality of academic aspects should be ensured, so that the graduate students can understand the implementation of the fine engineering concepts. Detailed laboratories with state of art facilities, are essential in this quest, and they are the centres of perfection for the graduates and post-graduates. All the essential laboratorial equipment, of newer versions, are made available at RGMCET.

Futuristic appeal

The essential features are provided with futuristic appeal as the main essence, since they should serve the purpose of the next-gen education, which is being applied in the prestigious universities throughout the world. RGMCET understands that the education traits have changed by much higher levels, and subtle measures should be taken to meet the international demands in the employment sector, which is the main bread and butter for the Indians, who depend extensively on the outsourcing industry. 

So, RGMCET made a point of fact to elude futuristic appeal in the amenities provided at the campus. Even the central library and super speed internet connectivity are offered with the futuristic requirements kept in check.

Comfortable reach to the college

Hassles in transportation are frowned upon by the management, and this led to the provision of secured private transit by the college. Students of RGMCET have no regrets whatsoever in reaching to or leaving from the campus. 

There are a host of features at RGMCET, the top engineering college in Andhra Pradesh. And, they turn out to be the assisting parameters to the stepping stones of students’ prosperity. 

Saturday, 23 August 2014

Estimated Storage of Human Brain

Designing A Cost-Effective and Versatile Home Area Network Device

The sky-rocketing cost of energy production has necessitated a more efficient energy consumption process. This has brought revolution in electrical equipment manufacturing and energy metering infrastructure. Home area network (HAN) is an advanced electrical ecosystem in which a smart utility meter and HAN devices communicate with each other to control the energy consumption profile. Armed with the latest technological advancements in the field of energy utilization, HANs are ready to supplant the traditional electrical ecosystems at home.

Fig. 1: Application diagram of HAN device

A basic HAN device has a two-way communication link with a utility meter and optionally with other devices in a HAN ecosystem, sharing energy consumption data of the equipment it is connected to and also receiving commands to turn off or hibernate the equipment when unused.
This low-cost device can be hooked in the existing electrical infrastructure without the need to replace, renovate, alter or rework the infrastructure. The power consumption is very low (in micro amperes) when it’s not in use. The following sections describe certain enhancements to the basic HAN device architecture which extend its capability and feature-set.


The HAN device can be considered as an intelligent power socket, which at one end connects to the normal power socket and on the other end offers pluggable connection interface for home appliances, e.g., microwave and air-conditioner. It can be controlled directly by the utility meter over wireless interfaces like radio frequency (RF) or wired interfaces like power line communication (home plug, etc). Additionally, its firmware can be upgraded over the RF/programmable logic controller (PLC) interface by the utility meter. Various energy parameters of the device can be displayed on the LCD. It also supports battery backup option for maintaining the time and date.
Fig. 1 shows the application diagram of the HAN device. The device consists of a microcontroller, 230V-3.3V converter, relay, signal conditioning circuitry, infrared (IR) interface (supporting both transmitter and receiver), LCD panel and RF/power-line communication physical layer.

Its main operational features are:
  1. Very low current consumption (10 μA) when it’s not functional
  2. Very low run current (10 mA); 40 mA at full load
  3. Fully controlled by the energy meter
  4. High-voltage cut-off to save the appliances
  5. Wireless communication over 2.4GHz Zigbee
  6. Month-wise information storage of the power consumed
  7. Fully-functional system starting from 90V AC to 300V AC
  8. Easy to hook on to the network
  9. Compact in size

Role of various components 

Fig. 2 shows the block diagram of the device components. The role of these components is described below:
Microcontroller. The microcontroller or system-on-a-chip (SoC) plays a pivotal role in the device operation. In addition to controlling other components, it stores the application firmware in its internal Flash memory. For supporting various functionalities of the HAN device, the microcontroller should be equipped with the following features:
  1. Low-power processing core with the capability to perform complex arithmetic operations required for energy calculation
  2. Suitable physical-layer communication interface for RF or power-line communication, if used
  3. On-chip Flash memory and static random-access memory for storing application firmware and faster operation
  4. LCD driver for LCD display
  5. Interfaces like universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter, which can support infrared communication
  6. High-resolution analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs) with programmable gain amplifier for voltage and current measurements
  7. Input/output (I/O) ports for driving relays 
  8. Real-time counter for time keepingThe microcontroller senses the voltage and current through the signal conditioning circuit along with the ADC and programmable gain amplifier to calculate root mean square (RMS) voltage and current values, instantaneous energy consumed and total energy consumed over a period of time (one month or longer). It then sends this data to the utility meter through RF or power line communication and also displays it on the LCD. When a command to turn off the device is received, it drives suitable logic on its I/O ports to operate the relay.

The microcontroller gets its power supply from the power line through a 230V-3.3V converter. The converter can be suitably configured according to the operating voltage of the microcontroller. The on-chip Flash firmware can be updated over the RF or PLC interface by the utility meter. The protocol and exact details of firmware updation depend on specific implementations.

Fig: 2: Block diagram of HAN device

Signal conditioning. The signal conditioning unit consists of an analogue front-end for voltage and current measurement. The line voltage is measured by first down-size  in it with a resistor ladder, thereafter direct-current (DC) filtering and DC biasing.

Compared to voltage measurement, current measurement is less involved. First, the line current is downsized using a current transformer and then passed through a small value of high-precision shunt resistor. The voltage drop across this shunt resistor gives a measure of the line current. As this voltage drop is very small, it is suitably amplified before being fed to the ADC.
The amplifier consists of programmable gain stages for amplification of only the alternating-current (AC) components, thus preventing the amplifier output from saturation.
Infrared interface. The infrared interface can be configured suitably according to the range and power consumption. It provides remote configuration support for the HAN device, enabling the user to remotely turn on/off the home appliance connected to the HAN device. The protocol and exact details of operation can be flexibly chosen for particular implementations.
LCD panel. The LCD panel displays the instantaneous energy consumed, total energy consumed last/current month, date and time of the day, RMS voltage and RMS current. It inherits some of the utility meter display, thus acting as a low-accuracy but smart AC energy meter.
In a nutshell, the above architecture conceptualizes a cost-effective and extremely versatile HAN device, which is replete with all the essential HAN device features along with the support for advanced features like firmware upgrade and full control of appliances over RF/PLC interface. It also doubles as a low-cost smart AC energy meter, providing round-the-clock energy consumption details of the home appliance.
Though the device is depicted here as a standalone intelligent power socket, it can also be implemented inside home appliances.

Article by
Dept. of EEE
Rajeev Gandhi Memorial College of Engineering and Technology, Nandyal

Rajeev Gandhi Memorial College of Engineering and Technology, Nandyal